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7.  If possible, eat less or no red meat.
                   8.  Minimise fried foods, takeaways and meals out – make them the exceptional treat.
                   9.  Drink less alcohol, caffeine and sugary drinks.
                   10. Choose wholemeal flower and wholegrain bread rather than white processed bread.

               Case Study

               My long-term diet - by Matt Carter

               Because there’s just so much information out there, it’s almost impossible for OOSO to recommend
               singularly, the ‘perfect diet’. But since having had oesophageal cancer and other health related
               issues, I can share with you the dietary decisions I have made.

               Like all former patients we don’t want to experience cancer ever again, so my diet to a large extent
               focusses on things that I hope will reduce the likelihood of cancer returning. The spin-off of all this is
               a healthier diet and generally feeling fit and well. I have made some difficult and quite significant
               changes but can honestly say I am ever so glad I did.

               It’s important to note that whilst peer reviewed studies are emerging, there is still precious little
               hard scientific evidence that proves particular foods or components of food directly cause cancer.
               So, whilst we wait for evidence to emerge, it’s mindful to be wary of myths.

               Dealing with the here and now, by chatting with other former patients, friends, dieticians and
               doctors, the following six themes have rightly (or wrongly) influenced my dietary choices, and to
               some extent lifestyle:

                   1.  Carcinogens. These are typically harmful chemicals or substances that have the capacity to
                       cause cancer. Some are purely man-made whilst others found in the natural environment.
                       It’s worth noting that exposure to carcinogens apparently doesn’t always cause cancer. It
                       depends on our individual genetics, as well as the level and duration of exposure to the
                       carcinogen. There are very few studies that have conclusively, directly linked any one food
                       item with cancer. In one such case however, according to the World Health Organization
                       (WHO), there is “convincing evidence” that eating processed meat or too much red meat can
                       cause cancer. Cancer Research UK say eating processed meats such as bacon, salami and
                       sausages and too much red meat, like beef and lamb can result in a higher risk of developing
                       bowel cancer. Although it’s a complicated picture, reducing or avoiding processed foods isn’t
                       as hard as it sounds, and long-term benefits may be well worth the effort.

                   2.  Sugar. Sadly, I have a sweet tooth and love beer, so this has been challenging for me. All
                       kinds of cells, including cancer cells, depend on blood sugar / glucose for energy. Sugars are
                       obviously important to us, but there seems to be growing evidence that excessive amounts
                       of sugar in the diet can be harmful. Eating too much sugar can lead to weight gain and
                       increase the risk of obesity and diabetes, which may increase the risk of cancer. More
                       research is needed to understand the relationship between sugar in the diet and cancer, but
                       it feels an intuitively sensible thing to be cautious, and only eat small or moderate amounts
                       of sugar. This means one small piece of chocolate not two, choosing low or no sugar drinks,
                       and having one beer not three!

                   3.  Acidity. ‘PH’ is a measure of acidity and alkalinity. Acidic conditions range between 1-6, and
                       alkalinity 8-14. A healthy body 'PH’ is typically between 7.3-7.4, in the ‘Neutral Zone’. Based
                       on the notion that cancer might thrive in less healthy, acidic environments, PH is a
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